While alveolar macrophages play an important role in the first line of defence against pathogens, they may also be involved in the chronic inflammatory state in cystic fibrosis (CF).
A recent study suggests that alveolar macrophages might contribute to CF hyper-inflammation through the X-box–binding protein-1 (XBP-1s) pathway. The up-regulation of XBP-1s mediates the secretion of inflammatory factors (cytokines) by alveolar macrophages.
This pathway could represent a new therapeutic target for CF, in combination with other therapies.
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Lubamba BA, Jones LC, O’Neal WK, et al. X-Box–Binding Protein 1 and Innate Immune Responses of Human Cystic Fibrosis Alveolar Macrophages. AJRCCM 2015; 192: 1449-1461